The Russian government is increasingly pressuring American technology companies to take down content from their platforms with threats of fines, throttling and criminal prosecution for local staff ahead of this weekend’s parliamentary election.
The breadth of the censorship demands, backed by recently-passed laws targeting content deemed to be illegal, are challenging the internet companies’ commitments to human rights principles and internet freedom, experts say.
“Russia realized long ago the liberating power of digital technologies and digital platforms and how they can be used for anti-government protests,” said Baurzhan Rakhmetov, an assistant professor at Kazguu University in Kazakhstan and an expert in Russian internet censorship. “So it has passed restrictive laws targeting internet companies that silence opposition voices and political speech.”
On Friday, after weeks of resistance, Apple and Google complied with an order to remove an app developed by Russian activists supporting jailed Kremlin critic and opposition leader Alexei Navalny from their Russian app stores after the country accused the companies of election interference.
Navalny ally Ivan Zhdanov described the tech companies’ removal of the app as a “shameful act of political censorship.”
Apple and Google did not respond to requests for comment.
Since mid-August, Russia’s federal censorship agency Roskomnadzor threatened Apple and Google with fines if they didn’t remove the “Smart Vote” app, which encouraged users to engage in tactical voting against the ruling United Russia party in the parliamentary elections. In notices sent to the technology companies, the censorship body stated that any involvement in the activities of an extremist organization is considered a felony.
Navalny’s Anti-Corruption Foundation nonprofit, along with his movement’s headquarters, were categorized by the Russian government as extremist organizations since May, as previously reported by the Russian news agency TASS.
Kremlin press secretary Dmitry Peskov said during a press call Friday that the Kremlin did not like the Smart Vote project, which he described as “just another absolutely provocative attempt that actually harms voters.”
He said that Apple and Google were following the “letter and spirit of the law” by deleting the apps from the Russian stores.
The takedown of Navalny’s app is the culmination of months of tension between the Silicon Valley-headquartered tech companies and Russian regulators. Facebook, Twitter, Apple and Google agree to comply with local laws in countries where they operate but also have their own policies to enshrine internationally recognized human rights standards, as laid out by the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. These principles state that in cases where there are conflicts between local laws and human rights commitments, companies should challenge those laws to promote international human rights standards.
International human rights experts said that the app takedown set a worrying precedent.
“Navalny’s only crime is he’s an opposition figure,” said David Kaye, professor of law at the University of California Irvine, and former U.N. special rapporteur on freedom of expression. “He is really an example of Russia and other countries expanding the definition of extremism beyond recognition. It’s preposterous.”
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“The app takedown is really concerning,” he added, pointing to the “problematic” lack of transparency from Google and Apple on how they reached their decision.
“We don’t know the kind of human rights impact assessment the companies have done in the face of this kind of pressure. What does their analysis look like and what has their pushback been like?”
“If they don’t comply their staff could face real harm, whether harms or arrests,” he said.
Daphne Keller, who directs the program on platform regulation at Stanford University’s Cyber Policy Center, said what’s happening in Russia is part of a pattern of similar internet restrictions taking place around the world, including India and Turkey.
“There are two stages to it. One is to pass laws requiring platforms to do some things to signify their compliance up front — before they even receive a takedown request,” she said, pointing to laws that require companies to have a local office with employees or data stored in the country. “Then there’s the separate stage of sending takedown requests using new laws that give them additional teeth and penalties they can now bring to bear.”
The companies have resisted complying with government orders in some cases, leading to several significant fines and other penalties.